This annex comprises a collection of foundational AI ethical principles, distilled from various sources. Not all are included or addressed in the Model Framework. Organisations may consider incorporating these principles into their own corporate principles, where relevant and desired.
Principle: A compilation of existing AI ethical principles (Annex A), Jan 21, 2020

Published by Personal Data Protection Commission (PDPC), Singapore

Related Principles


We reaffirm that the use of AI must take place within the context of the existing DoD ethical framework. Building on this foundation, we propose the following principles, which are more specific to AI, and note that they apply to both combat and non combat systems. AI is a rapidly developing field, and no organization that currently develops or fields AI systems or espouses AI ethics principles can claim to have solved all the challenges embedded in the following principles. However, the Department should set the goal that its use of AI systems is:

Published by Defense Innovation Board (DIB), Department of Defense (DoD), United States in AI Ethics Principles for DoD, Oct 31, 2019


We have left some of the terms above purposefully under specified to allow these principles to be broadly applicable. Applying these principles well should include understanding them within a specific context. We also suggest that these issues be revisited and discussed throughout the design, implementation, and release phases of development. Two important principles for consideration were purposefully left off of this list as they are well covered elsewhere: privacy and the impact of human experimentation. We encourage you to incorporate those issues into your overall assessment of algorithmic accountability as well.

Published by Fairness, Accountability, and Transparency in Machine Learning (FAT/ML) in Principles for Accountable Algorithms, Jul 22, 2016 (unconfirmed)


New developments in Artificial Intelligence are transforming the world, from science and industry to government administration and finance. The rise of AI decision making also implicates fundamental rights of fairness, accountability, and transparency. Modern data analysis produces significant outcomes that have real life consequences for people in employment, housing, credit, commerce, and criminal sentencing. Many of these techniques are entirely opaque, leaving individuals unaware whether the decisions were accurate, fair, or even about them. We propose these Universal Guidelines to inform and improve the design and use of AI. The Guidelines are intended to maximize the benefits of AI, to minimize the risk, and to ensure the protection of human rights. These Guidelines should be incorporated into ethical standards, adopted in national law and international agreements, and built into the design of systems. We state clearly that the primary responsibility for AI systems must reside with those institutions that fund, develop, and deploy these systems.

Published by The Public Voice coalition, established by Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) in Universal Guidelines for Artificial Intelligence, Oct 23, 2018

Preamble: Our intent for the ethical use of AI in Defence

The MOD is committed to developing and deploying AI enabled systems responsibly, in ways that build trust and consensus, setting international standards for the ethical use of AI for Defence. The MOD will develop and deploy AI enabled systems for purposes that are demonstrably beneficial: driving operational improvements, supporting the Defence Purpose, and upholding human rights and democratic values. The MOD’s existing obligations under UK law and international law, including as applicable international humanitarian law (IHL) and international human rights law, act as a foundation for Defence’s development, deployment and operation of AI enabled systems. These ethical principles do not affect or supersede existing legal obligations. Instead, they set out an ethical framework which will guide Defence’s approach to adopting AI, in line with rigorous existing codes of conduct and regulations. These principles are applicable across the full spectrum of use cases for AI in Defence, from battlespace to back office, and across the entire lifecycle of these systems.

Published by The Ministry of Defence (MOD), United Kingdom in Ethical Principles for AI in Defence, Jun 15, 2022


The Principles of Artificial Intelligence (AI) Ethics for the Intelligence Community (IC) are intended to guide personnel on whether and how to develop and use AI, to include machine learning, in furtherance of the IC’s mission. These Principles supplement the Principles of Professional Ethics for the IC and do not modify or supersede applicable laws, executive orders, or policies. Instead, they articulate the general norms that IC elements should follow in applying those authorities and requirements. To assist with the implementation of these Principles, the IC has also created an AI Ethics Framework to guide personnel who are determining whether and how to procure, design, build, use, protect, consume, and manage AI and other advanced analytics. The Intelligence Community commits to the design, development, and use of AI with the following principles:

Published by Intelligence Community (IC), United States in Principles of Artificial Intelligence Ethics for the Intelligence Community, Jul 23, 2020