Fifth, the principle of the rule of law.

The application of AI technology should conform to the purposes of the UN Charter and the basic principles of modern international law such as sovereign equality of states, peaceful settlement of disputes, prohibition of the use of force and non interference in internal affairs of other states;
Principle: Six AI Principles proposed by Mme Fu Ying, Jan 23, 2019

Published by Center for International Strategy and Security, Tsinghua University (Tsinghua CISS)

Related Principles

(f) Rule of law and accountability

Rule of law, access to justice and the right to redress and a fair trial provide the necessary framework for ensuring the observance of human rights standards and potential AI specific regulations. This includes protections against risks stemming from ‘autonomous’ systems that could infringe human rights, such as safety and privacy. The whole range of legal challenges arising in the field should be addressed with timely investment in the development of robust solutions that provide a fair and clear allocation of responsibilities and efficient mechanisms of binding law. In this regard, governments and international organisations ought to increase their efforts in clarifying with whom liabilities lie for damages caused by undesired behaviour of ‘autonomous’ systems. Moreover, effective harm mitigation systems should be in place.

Published by European Group on Ethics in Science and New Technologies, European Commission in Ethical principles and democratic prerequisites, Mar 9, 2018

7. Principle of ethics

Developers should respect human dignity and individual autonomy in R&D of AI systems. [Comment] It is encouraged that, when developing AI systems that link with the human brain and body, developers pay particularly due consideration to respecting human dignity and individual autonomy, in light of discussions on bioethics, etc. It is also encouraged that, to the extent possible in light of the characteristics of the technologies to be adopted, developers make efforts to take necessary measures so as not to cause unfair discrimination resulting from prejudice included in the learning data of the AI systems. It is advisable that developers take precautions to ensure that AI systems do not unduly infringe the value of humanity, based on the International Human Rights Law and the International Humanitarian Law.

Published by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles, Jul 28, 2017

Chapter 1. General Principles

  1. This set of norms aims to integrate ethics into the entire life cycle of AI, to promote fairness, justice, harmony, safety and security, and to avoid issues such as prejudice, discrimination, privacy and information leakage.   2. This set of norms applies to natural persons, legal persons, and other related organizations engaged in related activities such as management, research and development, supply, and use of AI. (1) The management activities mainly refer to strategic planning, formulation and implementation of policies, laws, regulations, and technical standards, resource allocation, supervision and inspection, etc. (2) The research and development activities mainly refer to scientific research, technology development, product development, etc. related to AI. (3) The supply activities mainly refer to the production, operation, and sales of AI products and services. (4) The use activities mainly refer to the procurement, consumption, and manipulation of AI products and services.   3. Various activities of AI shall abide by the following fundamental ethical norms. (1) Enhancing the well being of humankind. Adhere to the people oriented vision, abide by the common values of humankind, respect human rights and the fundamental interests of humankind, and abide by national and regional ethical norms. Adhere to the priority of public interests, promote human machine harmony, improve people’s livelihood, enhance the sense of happiness, promote the sustainable development of economy, society and ecology, and jointly build a human community with a shared future. (2) Promoting fairness and justice. Adhere to shared benefits and inclusivity, effectively protect the legitimate rights and interests of all relevant stakeholders, promote fair sharing of the benefits of AI in the whole society, and promote social fairness and justice, and equal opportunities. When providing AI products and services, we should fully respect and help vulnerable groups and underrepresented groups, and provide corresponding alternatives as needed. (3) Protecting privacy and security. Fully respect the rights of personal information, to know, and to consent, etc., handle personal information, protect personal privacy and data security in accordance with the principles of lawfulness, justifiability, necessity, and integrity, do no harm to the legitimate rights of personal data, must not illegally collect and use personal information by stealing, tampering, or leaking, etc., and must not infringe on the rights of personal privacy. (4) Ensuring controllability and trustworthiness. Ensure that humans have the full power for decision making, the rights to choose whether to accept the services provided by AI, the rights to withdraw from the interaction with AI at any time, and the rights to suspend the operation of AI systems at any time, and ensure that AI is always under meaningful human control. (5) Strengthening accountability. Adhere that human beings are the ultimate liable subjects. Clarify the responsibilities of all relevant stakeholders, comprehensively enhance the awareness of responsibility, introspect and self discipline in the entire life cycle of AI. Establish an accountability mechanism in AI related activities, and do not evade liability reviews and do not escape from responsibilities. (6) Improving ethical literacy. Actively learn and popularize knowledge related to AI ethics, objectively understand ethical issues, and do not underestimate or exaggerate ethical risks. Actively carry out or participate in the discussions on the ethical issues of AI, deeply promote the practice of AI ethics and governance, and improve the ability to respond to related issues.   4. The ethical norms that should be followed in specific activities related to AI include the norms of management, the norms of research and development, the norms of supply, and the norms of use.

Published by National Governance Committee for the New Generation Artificial Intelligence, China in Ethical Norms for the New Generation Artificial Intelligence, Sep 25, 2021

6. The norms of delegation of decisions to AI systems shall be codified through thoughtful, inclusive dialogue with civil society.

In most instances, the codification of the acceptable uses of AI remains the domain of the technical elite with legislators, courts and governments struggling to catch up to realities on the ground, while ordinary citizens remain mostly excluded. Principle 6 is intended to ensure that standards and codes of practice result from more inclusive dialogue and are grounded in truly broad consensus.

Published by The Future Society, Science, Law and Society (SLS) Initiative in Principles for the Governance of AI, Oct 3, 2017 (unconfirmed)


New developments in Artificial Intelligence are transforming the world, from science and industry to government administration and finance. The rise of AI decision making also implicates fundamental rights of fairness, accountability, and transparency. Modern data analysis produces significant outcomes that have real life consequences for people in employment, housing, credit, commerce, and criminal sentencing. Many of these techniques are entirely opaque, leaving individuals unaware whether the decisions were accurate, fair, or even about them. We propose these Universal Guidelines to inform and improve the design and use of AI. The Guidelines are intended to maximize the benefits of AI, to minimize the risk, and to ensure the protection of human rights. These Guidelines should be incorporated into ethical standards, adopted in national law and international agreements, and built into the design of systems. We state clearly that the primary responsibility for AI systems must reside with those institutions that fund, develop, and deploy these systems.

Published by The Public Voice coalition, established by Electronic Privacy Information Center (EPIC) in Universal Guidelines for Artificial Intelligence, Oct 23, 2018