8. Open cooperation

The development of artificial intelligence requires the concerted efforts of all countries and all parties, and we should actively establish norms and standards for the safe development of artificial intelligence at the international level, so as to avoid the security risks caused by incompatibility between technology and policies.
Principle: Shanghai Initiative for the Safe Development of Artificial Intelligence, Aug 30, 2019

Published by Shanghai Advisory Committee of Experts on Artificial Intelligence Industry Security

Related Principles

1. Artificial intelligence should be developed for the common good and benefit of humanity.

The UK must seek to actively shape AI's development and utilisation, or risk passively acquiescing to its many likely consequences. A shared ethical AI framework is needed to give clarity as to how AI can best be used to benefit individuals and society. By establishing these principles, the UK can lead by example in the international community. We recommend that the Government convene a global summit of governments, academia and industry to establish international norms for the design, development, regulation and deployment of artificial intelligence. The prejudices of the past must not be unwittingly built into automated systems, and such systems must be carefully designed from the beginning, with input from as diverse a group of people as possible.

Published by House of Lords of United Kingdom, Select Committee on Artificial Intelligence in AI Code, Apr 16, 2018


Taking into consideration the principles above, the 40th International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners calls for common governance principles on artificial intelligence to be established, fostering concerted international efforts in this field, in order to ensure that its development and use take place in accordance with ethics and human values, and respect human dignity. These common governance principles must be able to tackle the challenges raised by the rapid evolutions of artificial intelligence technologies, on the basis of a multi stakeholder approach in order to address all cross sectoral issues at stake. They must take place at an international level since the development of artificial intelligence is a trans border phenomenon and may affect all humanity. The Conference should be involved in this international effort, working with and supporting general and sectoral authorities in other fields such as competition, market and consumer regulation.

Published by 40th International Conference of Data Protection and Privacy Commissioners (ICDPPC) in Declaration On Ethics And Data Protection In Artifical Intelligence, Oct 23, 2018

5. Principle of security

Developers should pay attention to the security of AI systems. [Comment] In addition to respecting international guidelines on security such as “OECD Guidelines for the Security of Information Systems and Networks,” it is encouraged that developers pay attention to the followings, with consideration of the possibility that AI systems might change their outputs or programs as a result of learning or other methods: ● To pay attention, as necessary, to the reliability (that is, whether the operations are performed as intended and not steered by unauthorized third parties) and robustness (that is, tolerance to physical attacks and accidents) of AI systems, in addition to: (a) confidentiality; (b) integrity; and (c) availability of information that are usually required for ensuring the information security of AI systems. ● To make efforts to conduct verification and validation in advance in order to assess and control the risks related to the security of AI systems. ● To make efforts to take measures to maintain the security to the extent possible in light of the characteristics of the technologies to be adopted throughout the process of the development of AI systems (“security by design”).

Published by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications (MIC), the Government of Japan in AI R&D Principles, Jul 28, 2017


2.1. Risk based approach. The level of attention to ethical issues in AI and the nature of the relevant actions of AI Actors should be proportional to the assessment of the level of risk posed by specific technologies and AISs and the interests of individuals and society. Risk level assessment must take into account both the known and possible risks; in this case, the level of probability of threats should be taken into account as well as their possible scale in the short and long term. In the field of AI development, making decisions that are significant to society and the state should be accompanied by scientifically verified and interdisciplinary forecasting of socio economic consequences and risks, as well as by the examination of possible changes in the value and cultural paradigm of the development of society, while taking into account national priorities. In pursuance of this Code, the development and use of an AIS risk assessment methodology is recommended. 2.2. Responsible attitude. AI Actors should have a responsible approach to the aspects of AIS that influence society and citizens at every stage of the AIS life cycle. These include privacy; the ethical, safe and responsible use of personal data; the nature, degree and amount of damage that may follow as a result of the use of the technology and AIS; and the selection and use of companion hardware and software. In this case, the responsibility of the AI Actors must correspond to the nature, degree and amount of damage that may occur as a result of the use of technologies and AIS, while taking into account the role of the AI Actor in the life cycle of AIS, as well as the degree of possible and real impact of a particular AI Actor on causing damage, as well as its size. 2.3. Precautions. When the activities of AI Actors can lead to morally unacceptable consequences for individuals and society, the occurrence of which the corresponding AI Actor can reasonably assume, measures should be taken to prevent or limit the occurrence of such consequences. To assess the moral acceptability of consequences and the possible measures to prevent them, Actors can use the provisions of this Code, including the mechanisms specified in Section 2. 2.4. No harm. AI Actors should not allow use of AI technologies for the purpose of causing harm to human life, the environment and or the health or property of citizens and legal entities. Any application of an AIS capable of purposefully causing harm to the environment, human life or health or the property of citizens and legal entities during any stage, including design, development, testing, implementation or operation, is unacceptable. 2.5. Identification of AI in communication with a human. AI Actors are encouraged to ensure that users are informed of their interactions with the AIS when it affects their rights and critical areas of their lives and to ensure that such interactions can be terminated at the request of the user. 2.6. Data security AI Actors must comply with the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of personal data and secrets protected by law when using an AIS. Furthermore, they must ensure the protection and protection of personal data processed by an AIS or AI Actors in order to develop and improve the AIS by developing and implementing innovative methods of controlling unauthorized access by third parties to personal data and using high quality and representative datasets from reliable sources and obtained without breaking the law. 2.7. Information security. AI Actors should provide the maximum possible protection against unauthorized interference in the work of the AI by third parties by introducing adequate information security technologies, including the use of internal mechanisms for protecting the AIS from unauthorized interventions and informing users and developers about such interventions. They must also inform users about the rules regarding information security when using the AIS. 2.8. Voluntary certification and Code compliance. AI Actors can implement voluntary certification for the compliance of the developed AI technologies with the standards established by the legislation of the Russian Federation and this Code. AI Actors can create voluntary certification and AIS labeling systems that indicate that these systems have passed voluntary certification procedures and confirm quality standards. 2.9. Control of the recursive self improvement of AISs. AI Actors are encouraged to collaborate in the identification and verification of methods and forms of creating universal ("strong") AIS and the prevention of the possible threats that AIS carry. The use of "strong" AI technologies should be under the control of the state.

Published by AI Alliance Russia in Artificial Intelligence Code of Ethics, Oct 26, 2021

6. Transparent regulation

The development of artificial intelligence should avoid the security risks caused by the technology black box, and it is necessary to ensure the unity of target functions and technologies through the establishment of reviewable, traceable, reputable regulatory mechanisms.

Published by Shanghai Advisory Committee of Experts on Artificial Intelligence Industry Security in Shanghai Initiative for the Safe Development of Artificial Intelligence, Aug 30, 2019